The extremely fertile land of Fergana Valley was an important trading center located in the Silk Road route which facilitated the transcontinental trade between East and West. It is considered one of the most beautiful areas in the territory surrounded by mountain of Tien Shan and traversed by rivers of Syr Darya and Naryn. Colossal amount of cotton cultivation along with fruits and vegetables form the economic backbone of the people inhabiting this valley.
Founded way back in 1876, Fergana city in the mountain plateau made a perfect military base for rulers to protect their empires where the first garrison was founded and for a long time remained a garrison town. Fergana is a depression land enclosed by the Tien Shan Mountains which still remains highly disputed and the most troubled area in Central Asia. The division of the Soviet Union which resulted in the formation of countries like Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Kazakhstan was itself ill planned and even more ill-executed. Fergana Valley was inhabited by Kyrgyz, Tajik and Uzbek people. But after the division, the valley came completely under Uzbekistan which led to many ethnic groups suddenly living in region which was not theirs. This paved the way for spasmodic political and public unrest which are still rampant.